The Torah/Bible, a research book to the development and advancement of sciences
The Torah or Bible, for centuries, remains and remains the most read and widespread book around the world (Kuen, 2012). It is translated into several languages and distributed to thousands of people (Kuen, 2012). However, most of its readers, researchers, pastors, preachers, professors, theologians and members of the evangelical sector, ignore the importance of Torah or Bible research. As a source of research, the Torah is a book than can be used to develop sciences, contribute to the scientific progress and make scientific advances. We have spent a lot of time to read, study and to do research in the fields of philosophy, chemistry, physics, psychology, archeology, medicine and computer science to deepen our knowledge. However, all theses sciences and many of great recent scientifc discoveries were already mentionned, thousand years in the Torah/Bible(Comfort 2001). So, theses discoveries confirm the contents of the Bible. Otherwise, many of the great scientists who have founded and developed key disciplines in sciences (physics, biology, geology, astronomy, etc.) were creationists, consequently believers of the Torah or Bible. Moreover, for them, their highest vocation and scientific enterprise is to be dedicated to the thoughts of God. This would be tantamount to saying they were interested in what the God of Jews reveals through creation or say in the Torah or Bible. Nevertheless, there are few people who devote or invest themselves to Torah or Bible research, and failing to discover that most writers of the Bible or Torah were eminent researchers to find answers to their questions or to resolve their problems.
This paper aims, by scrutinizing the Holy Scriptures, to show that the research could have its source in the Torah, and that the Torah or Bible gives its contribution to the development and advancement of the sciences. The Torah, a book in which a panoply of examples of research are found, is filled with scientific facts written thousands of years before their discoveries by humans (Comfort 2001). In this way, there are Bible writers and other men of God in the Torah or in the Bible who are involved in the field of research.
Definition of research
The research is a systematic study of an object aiming to obtain knowledge allowing to bring a light to solve problems theoretical or applied (Mace et al., 2000). In this definition In this definition, we see that research has a double purpose; on the one hand, it allows us to deepen our knowledge in a field, and on the other hand, it allows us, through the knowledge acquired, to solve a given problem or to clarify a problematic situation. Donc, la recherche biblique pourrait se définir comme étant une étude nous permettant d'approfondir nos connaissances dans la Parole de Dieu, de connaitre la vérité et d`appliquer cette vérité dans nos vies quotidiennes So, Bible research could be defined as a study that allows us to deepen our knowledge of the Word of God, to know the truth and to apply that truth in our daily lives. Roughly speaking, true study or Bible research is motivated by the need to discover the truth about a given fact or problem (Kuen 1986).
Origins of scientific research
Since antiquity, there have been speculative reflections on the world and on the creation of the universe, however, these scientific procedure were embryonic. The development of scientific knowledge is remarkable from the 16th century, especially with Francis Baron (1626). Baron affirms that it is necessary to organize science, because scientific progress could contribute to the economic and political development of nations. One could ask the question to know, what is at the origin of scientific research?
According to Comfort(2001), most scientific research and discovery was already there, thousands of years ago in the Torah/Bible. As an example, the Bible revealed thousands of years ago that the earth is a circle and we quote « It is he who sits above» (Is 40 : 22). The Martin version Bible tells us that the earth is a globe «it is he who sits above the globe» (Is 40 :22). And, 2,000 years later, researchers discovered that the earth is round and constitutes a globe (Comfort, 2001). The word Hebrew houg « circle » could be translated by « sphere, globe or circuit », it means that the earth has a spherical shape. The book of Isaiah was written from 740 BC while the prophet Isaia exeerciced his ministry in the kingdom of Judah. And, it was 300 years later that Aristoste discovered that the earth could have a spherical shape (Comfort, 2001: 7). Matthew (1808-1873) contributed greatly to the development of science of Oceannography from a verse discovered in the Psalm, one of the books of the littérature of the people of Israel. Matthew () discovered in the Bible the expression «the paths of the seas» (Psalm 8: 8). And, he continued his research on the "trails", he was able to develop a scientific discipline allowing to study the seas and oceans and was considered like the father of Oceanography. It is important to note that the book of Psalms was written more than 2,500 years ago. This allows us to confirm that the idea of the science of Oceanography was already present in the Bible, precisely in the literature of the Jewish people. Based on these arguments, could we not conclude that the scientific research could have its source in the Bible and that theses only confirm the content of he Bible?
Indeed, during the last years, the researchers discovered that everything we see is made up of things that we can tot see (Comfort, 2001). For example, the researchers confirmed that the atomes are invisible, however, the Bible tells us that, about 2,000 years ago, and quote the things which are seen were not made of things which do appear (Hebrew 11 : 3). It would mean that everything we see was made of invisible things. In addition, the reserachers discovered that the earth us suspended and they talked about the free suspension of the earth in space (Comfort, 2001 : p.7). Therefore, according to Comfort (2011 this discovery was already written in the Bible, specifically in the book of Job, thousands of years ago, that the God of the Jews suspends or hangs the earth over the void
(Job 26 : 7). Finaly, we could affirm without ambiguity that the Bible contents a set of scientific facts and that the reseraches scientific could have its source in the Bible. So, in the following section, we will show that, by analyzing the Holy Scripture, the Torah is a research book that contributed largely to the development of scientific disciplines and knowledge.
The Torah/Bible, its contribution to the development and advancement of sciences
Biblical research is of paramount importance in the life of individuals. Because it allows to discover answers to a considerable number of questions that the philosophers have always asked themselves such as : Is there life afer the death? Where do you come from? How to please God to in the sufferings of the life? Why so much suffering in our life? etc. Biblical reserach also contributes to the development and advancement of sciences. For example, in the book of Genesis, we discovered that Joseph, son of Jacob or Israel, is one of the greatest accountants, administrators and managers that the world have ever known (Ge 41: 36-48). So, during the seven years of Egypts’s fertility, Joseph collected surplus products and made supplies (Ge 41 : 47, 48). These produits or supplies would then be put in reserve for the seven (7) years of famine that would arrive in the land of Egypt (Ge 41 : 36). Is it not right to say with reason that God gave Joseph intelligence and wisdom to apply the principles and techniques of accounting and management in order to gather products/provisions during the seven years of abundance and prosperity and to save the country of Egypt and other countries in the world during this period of famine? In accounting, for example, the function of supply is to ensure good inventory management and good purchasing control. In addition, Joseph established places of supply in the cities; he took up a fifth of the crops of Egypt during the seven years of fertility and sold wheat to the Egyptians and to all the countries that came to buy wheat in Egypt (Ge 41 : 34, 56, 57). According to the litterarure consulted, traces of accounting are found in Egyptian history in the 4th millennium BC. Some researchers have mentionned that the beginning of accounting were in fact entrances and exists that have been found with the help of papyrus writings. So we can conclude that the idea of accounting science is from Joseph, son of Israel, in other words, the God of Jews gave Joseph intelligence and wisdon so that he could discover and apply the beginnings of accounting.
By the way, there are several biblical verses that could argue that the Torah or Bible is the queen of all sciences, First, the Torah or Bible has contributed to the development of science « Leadership et Management ». In the book of Genesis, God has entrusted to man the responsability to manage earth, to multiply,to subdue the earth and have dominion over all animals (Ge 1 : 28). In few words, God enstrusted to man the function of developing of his leadership and managment skills on the earth. In addition, many researchers, theologians and experts in leadership claim unanimously that Moses, of the Levi tribe, is one of the greatest leader that the world has ever known. The scientific or biological classification of the species has its origin in the Torah or Bible (Ge 1 : 24,25). And the Lord God, after forming the animals of the earth, brought them to Adam to express by name the nature of each of them, and thereby to characterize them (Ge 2 : 19). The text tells us that man (Adam) gave names to all animals and was able to identify males and females (Gen 2: 21). The Torah has also contributed to the development of genealogy that is an auxiliary science of history. In the fourth chapter of the book of Genesis, the author presents the genealogy of Adam to Noah (Ge 5: 1-32). In today's world, there is a digitized archive for tracing every inhabitant or family in a country. The Torah has also contributed enormously to the the development of humain sciences (linguistics, geography, sociology, history etc.). For, there are biblical data supporting this view in the 11th chapter of the book of Genesis. Indeed, all inhabitants of the earth formed one people, use one language and the same vocabularies (Ge 11 : 1). Thus, they were formed the project to build a city and a tower whose summit could touch heaven (Ge 11 : 4, 5). The Lord, seeing their determination to reach their ends, confused their language and scattered them all over the world of the earth (Ge 11 : 6-9). This confusion of language gives birth to several languages in the world (linguistics) and to several societies or peoples (sociology) and each people occupies a geographical space and has a different history (science of history and geography).To support this idea, the word of God teaches and we quote « The Most hight divided to the nations their inheritance, he separated the sons of Adam, he set the bounds of the people according to the number of the children of Israel » (Deut 32 :8). The Torah has contributed to the development of the botany science. Botany is the science devoted to the study of plants. According to biologists, plants, in order that they grow and produce their own energy, need water, sunlight and minerals (Aline 1997). In the book of Genesis, it has been found that there is harmony and chronological order in the creation. The biblical text tells us and we quote « And God said, Let there be light! and there was light. Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so. And God called the dry land Earth ; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas. And God said, let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind , whose seed is in itself, upon the earth : and it was so. » (Gen 1 : 3; 6; 9; 11). In this text, God created the light, the waters; afterwards, he created the earth. Finally, he created the life to the plants. The plants were able to produce fruits, according to their species, because, they found sunlight, waters and minerals to grow and produce their own energy and food. Based on this biblical verse, we could affirm that the idea of the botany science was already present in the Torah. That allows us to to say that the Torah has also contributed to the of the science of botany. In sum, there a lot of biblical evidence corfirming that the Torah has the Torah or Bible in the queen of all sciences and that it has contributed and still largely contributes to the development and advancement of knowledge and sciences.
The Torah/Bible, a book of research
The Torah, being considered like the mother of all sciences, has therefore become an inexhaustible source of research for both scientific and non-scientific fields and can help in their development. For example, the Torah offers a considerable contribution to philosophy and other sciences (Schaeffer, 1972). In other words, the Torah is a source of certainty for philosophy (Laloi, 2010 :31). Néanmoins, we cant not ignore that the philosophy Nevertheless, we cannot ignore that, philosophy brings to theology, more specifically to the Torah or Bible, the practice of reflection. When, for example, philosophers ask questions about the origin of man, students of the Torah or Bible feel the need to push their reflections on the major issues that predominate human thought and draw from the Torah or Bible the answers to these questionings. The Torah or Bible is a book that encourages the reserach. In other word, most biblical writers and kings are used to conducting research in the writings of the Bible and in the exercise of their function. Thus, we will scrutinize some texts of the Old Testaments treating the concept of research. Subsequently, we will present some texts of the New Testament that unambiguously claim that the biblical authors or writers did research to produce reliable and scientific works as well.
In the book of Chronicles, in the first year of Cyrus, the Lord stirred up the spirit of Cyrus and commanded him to build the temple of Jerusalem at Judah (2 Ch 36 : 2, 23). Under the command of the king Cyrus, the heads of the families of Judah and Benamin, the priests and Levites, even all whose spirit God Stirred to go up to build the temple of God (Esd 1 : 3-5). However, the enemies of Judah and Benjamin prevented the people of Israel from building the temple of the Lord(Esd 4 :5). In chapter 6 of book of Ezra, it is read that the king of Darius ordered to do research in order to know whether the King of Cyrus ordered the people of Israel to build the house of the Lord, and they read this : « Then Darius the King made a decree, and search was made in the in the house of archives , where the treasures were laid up in Babylon. And there was found at Achmetha, in the place that is in the province of Media, a scroll, and therein was thus written for a record: In the first year of Cyrus the king, Cyrus the king made a decree: Concerning the house of God at Jerusalem: let the house be built» (Esd 6 : 1-3). In sumarry, From the research, the problems that had been encountered by the people of Israel concerning the construction of the house of the Lord had been solved. In other words, the researches have allowed to discover. In other words, the research uncovered the truth about Cyrus' edict concerning the building of the house of the Lord. So, search in the Bible is useful in order to solve a given problem and to discover the truth. In the first chapter, as well as in the twenty-sixth chapter of the book of Numbers, the Lord commanded Moses to make a census in order to be able to quantify the children of Israel twenty years old and over(No 1 : 2-46; 26). In the book of Samuel, King David asked Joab to go through all the tribes of the people of Israel and to do the census to find out how much the people are (2 Sam 24: 2). Indeed, it is true that the word search is not mentioned in this passage; however, researchers would agree that the census, such as a survey, is a method widely used in the field of research. In the 7th chapter of the book of Joshua, the word of God relates that the children of Israel committed an infidelity to the Lord over goods destined for destruction. Because of this sin, the people of Israel were delivered into the hands of the men of Ai who killed them. In other words, the people could not any more resist their enemies because of this fault. For resolving or dealing with this problematic, Joshua, under the command of the Lord, made a search to identify the people who committed this infidelity about the things that were forbidden. In terms of method, the Lord commanded Joshua to proceed as follows: « In the morning therefore you shall be brought near by your tribes. It shall be that tre tribe which Yahweh selects shall come near by families. It shall be, that he who is taken with the devoted thing shall be burnt with fire, and finally Acan was The family which Yahweh selects shall come near by households. The households which Yahweh selects shall come near man by man, and finally, Acan, the son of Carmi, , the son of Zabdi, the son of Zerah, of the tribe o Judah, was selected » (Jo 7 : 10-19). In this texte, we find five the five fundamental elements of a scientific reserach. Respectively, these are the problematic, the research question, the research objective, the research method adopted and the results of research found. The problematic is evident, The problematic is very obvious: one of the children of Israel has committed an infidelity about forbidden things. Because of this, the people were delivered into the hands of their enemies. We could ask the following research question: Who committed this infidelity among the children of Israel? Therefore, the purpose of this research would be to identify that of the people who committed this infidelity. To achieve this goal, Josuah adopted a deductive research method. Dans le cadre d'une démarche déductive, on veut savoir comment passer d'un cas général à un cas spécifique. As part of a deductive approach, we want to know how to move from a general case to a specific case. In this text, to identify the person (specific case) who committed the sin, one designated a tribe among the tribes (general case). Afterwards, a family was selected from among all the families of a tribe. Then, a house among all the houses of a family and one person among all the people of a house. Finally, the result obtained is that Acan was identified and selected as the one among the people who committed this infidelity about the things that were forbidden. This allows us to conclude unambiguously that the research has a divine origin. In other words, the Bible is necessarily a book of research. It should be emphasized that research is at the root of all inventions and discoveries; which implies that scientific discoveries and inventions are generally made by men or women who invest in the field of research. We could ask the question : Who is at the origin of scientific discoveries and inventions?
In the book of Exodus, the Lord has chosen Bezaleel, the son of Uri, of the tribe of Judah, and he has filled him with the Spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge and made him able to make inventions (Exo 31 : 1-4). Based on this biblical passage, could we not rule that God is at the origin of all good inventions and discoveries made in the world? In other words, are the Israelis not the first researchers in the world who have made inventions and discoveries? Indeed, God gives the human intelligence to make inventions and discoveries, and Betzaleel and Oholiab are blatant examples in the Bible, specifically in the Torah. God make them able to devise skillful works, to work in gold, and in silver, and in brass(Exo 31 : 1-4). Betzaleel and Oholiab had therefore knowledge in sculpture, architecture, and civil engineering so that they could build the tabernacle of the Lord (Exo 31: 4, 5). This allows us to conclude that the first great engineers and architects in the world were Hebrews or Israelites.
In the New Testament, there are also biblical passages showing that biblical writers did reserach. The surest example would be Dr. Luc who, in order to prove to his excellent Theophilus the certainty of his teachings, made exact inquiries concerning the events of the life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ ( Luke 1: 1-4) . Indeed, Luc wanted, through his research, to verify the authenticity of information received from eyewitnesses (Luke 1: 1, 2). In his 1st Epistle, the Apostle Peter mentioned that the prophets did research for salvation when he said: « Concerning this salvation, the prophets sought and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that would come to you, searching for who or what kind of time the spirit of Christ, which was in them, pointed to…. » (1 Pe 1 : 10,11). In other words, the prophets, by making a systematic and prompt search, examine diligently the times and circumstances in order to discover the time of the appearance of the Messiah. Without going deep into the interpretation, the text teaches that the prophets announced in advance the sufferings that Jesus would have suffered for the salvation that was intended for us. However, they could not understand or discover when or what events these things would happen. In verse 12, God revealed to the prophets of the people of Israel that this message was not for them, but for us. In terms of application, when our biblical research is truly motivated by the need to uncover the truth about the things of God, the Lord will reveal himself to us.
In his 2nd Epistle, the Apostle Peter recounted that the Apostle Paul addressed in all his letters the subject concerning the coming of the Lord Jesus and that there are points difficult to understand in these letters (2 Peter 3:16). ). Peter continues his ideas by confirming that there are ignorant people who try to twist the meaning of Paul's Scriptures (2 Pet 3:16). Roughly speaking, Peter alluded to Paul's letters and following the other Scriptures. So this text has showed unambiguously that the Apostle Peter made a thorough study of all the letters of the beloved Brother Paul. And, we know that any thorough study involves, among other things, a research. We can therefore deduce that Peter made research in all Paul's letters and that, according to the results of his research; he was able to detect some things that are difficult to understand in those which the false doctor or ignorant trying to twist the meaning.
The Torah/ The Bible is not just only a research book or a book that contributes to the development and advancement of sciences, but it is also a complete book that could contribute to the success and integral growth of man both on cognitive, social and spiritual plans. In Luke's Gospel, the Word of God teaches that Jesus increased in wisdom, in stature, and in favour with God and men (Luke 2:52).
In other words, Jesus increased on the cognitive, social, and spiritual plans. In addition, the Torah, and the Bible as the whole, is a book that also allows the formulation of laws in the medical field. To support this idea, Guillaume Harvey (1616) recounted that blood circulation is the key factor of physical life. In the third book of the Torah, more preciously in the book of Leviticus, the word of God teaches that life resides in the blood, the text tells us and we quote « For the life of the flesh is in the blood » (Lev 17 : 11). According to the version of the Semeur, the text tells us that « The blood is the life of the creature » (Lév 17 : 11 In the version of the Bible in current French, the text relates that « It is in the bllod that resides the life of a creature». So the discovery of William(1616) confirmed what the Bible revealed 3,000 years ago.
Indeed, research is a skill that the God of the Hebrews or Jews entrusts to men or women, whether Jews, believers or non-believers. In the book of Exodus, the Lord filled with intelligence and wisdom two young Hebrews, Betzaleel and Oholiab, to work all manner of workmanship and God put in their heart that they may teach (Exo 35:34, 35). In addition, studies from many sources have shown that Moses was an eminent searcher and that he drew from the book of the covenant to write the Torah or the five books of the law of the people of Israel ((Exo 24: 7). So leaders and members of the Jewish and Evangelical community (Rabbi, pastors, preachers, members and believers) need to invest more in the field of biblical and theological research to be more educated in the affairs of God, and to be able to teach and preach exactly and rightly the way of God. Also, we need to invest more in scientific research, because we are endowed with natural intelligence; This will allow us to put our talents and abilities to contribute to the development of our community in the fields of engineering, technology, mineralogy, petroleum industry, psychology, seismology, etc. All the more, being believers, we are endowed with supernatural intelligence and wisdom, because the Spirit of the Yahweh rests upon us: spirit of wisdom and understanding, spirit of counsel and might, spirit of knowledge and fear of the Yahweh (Isa. 11: 2).
In the end, the Torah or Bible remains and remains a source of research that can be used to develop sciences, advance knowledge, and contribute to scientific progress and advances. Most scientific discoveries and inventions are due to Jewish researchers. Many great discoveries in medicine, botany, oceanography, archeology etc. only confirm the contents of the Torah, and the Bible as a whole. For example, archeology helps to put biblical facts and events back into history; however, it does not attest to biblical veracity in its theological and spiritual claims (Hoerth and McRay 2009: 11).
BRUEL GERANÇONB. Th, M.Sc. A, Ph.D.
candidate in cognitive computing,
University of Quebec at Montreal, Qc, Canada
____________________________________________________________________  http://www.bonnepersonne.org/Faits_Scientifiques_dans_la_Bible.pdf, page 18 (consultée en ligne en date du 11-03-2018)
 https://www.l-expert-comptable.com/a/37515-l-histoire-de-la-comptabilite.html (consultée en ligne en date du 07-03-2018)
 https://www.l-expert-comptable.com/a/37515-l-histoire-de-la-comptabilite.html (consultée en ligne en date du 07-03-2018)
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